Part 4a: US foreign policy in the years after the creation of the CFR

0130_crf_war_spendingThe people around Franklin Delano Roosevelt, who made him president, were from the same circles that created the CFR. They had the same ideology.

Originally belonging to J.P. Morgan, Chase National Bank had merged with the Rockefeller’s Equitable Trust in 1929, and by the end of 1932 it was firmly under Rockefeller control. Winthrop Aldrich — Rockefeller Jr.’s brother-in-law — became the president. The people at the top of Chase — shortly to become the biggest bank in the United States —  had a close relationship with Roosevelt and supported his candidacy.

Aldrich’s best friend was Gordon Auchincloss, from one of the most aristocratic families in the United States. Auchincloss was also a member of the Chase board and married to Colonel Edward M. House’s daughter. House had been eugenicist Woodrow Wilson’s main advisor in foreign policy. “During the campaign and transition period, House and Vincent Astor, Roosevelt’s cousin and also a member of the reorganized Chase board, passed messages between Roosevelt and Chase.”[49] With Theodore and Kermit Roosevelt, also cousins of FDR, Vincent Astor had founded The Room, FDR’s private espionage group, which included Chase president Winthrop Aldrich.[50] As if being at the top of the Rockefeller empire were not enough, Theodore and Kermit had grown up hearing the ideological views of their father, President Theodore Roosevelt: “A strong supporter of the growing eugenics movement in the United States, Roosevelt called for ‘racial purity’ and warned against interracial marriage as a form of ‘race suicide.’”[51] And in 1913 Theodore Roosevelt had actually sent Charles Davenport, leader of the American eugenics movement, a letter expressing the close agreement between his ideas and Davenport’s.[52] On the other side of the Atlantic, Nancy Astor, married to Vincent’s cousin William Waldorf Astor, led the aristocratic Cliveden set, which was widely held to be a pro nazi group with great influence in British government circles. David Efron, writing in Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science in 1939, called the Cliveden set a Nazi “Trojan Horse.”[53] Immediately before Roosevelt’s inauguration of January 1933, William Waldorf Astor and his wife Nancy traveled to the United States and stayed in the president-elect’s own residence.[54]

William Randolph Hearst

William Randolph Hearst

William Randolph Hearst, owner of about half of all the press in the United States, and Lord over Hollywood, was called by his contemporaries “the most influential American fascist… the keystone of American fascism.”[55] He was an intimate friend of the German millionaire Putzi Hanfstaengl, who was nothing less than Adolf Hitler’s financial backer and press secretary.[56] Consistent with all that, Hearst attended the famous Nuremberg rallies with the hysterically adoring crowds that Leni Riefenstahl immortalized in her famous Nazi propaganda films, staying in the same hotel with all the top Nazis. Goebbels’ Nazi propaganda ministry went out of its way to report the gushing reactions of Hearst’s son George. There were accusations at the time — deserved ones, it appears — that Hearst had made an agreement with Hitler to give him good press in the United States.[57]

Hearst’s views on foreign policy during the 1930s — published as editorials in all of his variegated newspapers — would be as follows: 1) the Treaty of Versailles (imposed on Germany after WWI, was unfair); 2) Nazism was an important bulwark against communism; 3) the US should not threaten Germany or make any movement to support the Treaty of Versailles; 4) the Popular Front government in France — a parliamentary socialist government — was a Soviet satellite; 5) the Nazi demands for revisions of borders were legitimate; 6) the Nazis were right to reoccupy the Rhineland; 7) even if the Nazis attacked US Navy shipping, this should be tolerated if they apologized sincerely (!); 8) Chamberlain was right in giving Czechoslovakia to Hitler; 9) Franco in Spain was preferable to the parliamentary, leftist alternative. His criticisms of the Nazis for the way they attacked all sorts of innocent people in Germany were quite mild, and they don’t refute the hypothesis of a pro Naziorientation; on the contrary, what they suggest is that, within the limits of what his political position allowed in the United States, he came as close as he could to a public approbation of the Nazi movement. Meanwhile, he repeatedly attacked Great Britain and France for supposedly not being true democracies![58]

Now, the aforementioned “Colonel Edward House[, who] had been a longtime adviser to [radical eugenicist] Woodrow Wilson… [now] helped chart Roosevelt’s early path. …Making overtures to William Randolph Hearst and other like-minded businessmen, Roosevelt repudiated his earlier strong support for the League of Nations,” which is to say that he repudiated the Treaty of Versailles, the same thing the Nazis were also doing.[59] And with Hearst’s support, he became president. What followed was the famous policy of so-called ‘appeasement,’ which is usually blamed especially on the French and British, and in particular on British Primer Minister Neville Chamberlain. This policy, however, was equally Franklin D. Roosevelt’s policy, though in public he postured differently from what he was doing behind the scenes.[60]

So, delving into the history of the CFR, and the ideological context of its creation, helps us explain the policy of supposed ‘appeasement.’

It also helps us explain the policy of the Allies to the Holocaust. It is commonly said that the leaders of US and Britain were indifferent to the Holocaust but this is not true. They barred entry to the desperate Jewish refugees, trapping them in Europe, and they even deployed vigorous diplomacy to prevent other countries from taking them. Despite repeated pleas, they refused to bomb the railways leading to Auschwitz, or the death camp itself. Not content with that, with Roosevelt’s approval, Undersecretary of State Breckenridge Long developed an immigration policy desinged to trap the European Jews where Hitler would find them: instead of denying visas outright, consular offices were told to “postpone, postpone, postpone…” — that is, to tell Jews who requested visas that there were temporary obstacles, but never to grant them. In this way, the desperate Jewish refugees, believeing there was merely a temporary delay, did not seek refuge elsewhere.[60a] Such an active policy is not consistent with disinterst, but with a strong interest in the death of the European Jews.

Something else that can be explained this way is what historian Charles Higham documented with great detail in the following work:

Higham, C. 1995[1983]. Trading with the Enemy: The Nazi-American Money Plot 1933-1949. New York: Barnes & Noble.

Notice the dates. What Higham showed, with a mountain of documents obtained through the Freedom of Information Act, is that even after the US declaration of war against the Axis Powers, the leading eugenicist businessmen in the United States, led by the Rockefellers, financed Hitler’s war effort (and sabotaged the supply of key war materials to the US forces). They did this with Roosevelt’s protection, even as US workers were dressed up as soldiers and blown up to bits on the various fronts.

It also helps us explain what historian Christopher Simpson documented, also with a mountain of documents declassified under the FOA:

Simpson, C. 1988. Blowback: America’s recruitment of Nazis and its effects on the Cold War. New York: Weidenfeld & Nicholson.

After the war, the US government created US Intelligence by recruiting tens of thousands of former Nazis.[60b]

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